Four categories of written performance that capture the range of written production are considered here. Each category resembles the categories defined for the other three skills, and, as always, these categories reflect the uniqueness of the skill area.
To produce written language, the learner must attain skills in the fundamental, basic tasks of writing letters, words, punctuation, and brief sentences.写字母、词语、表达和句子。
This category includes the ability to spell correctly and to perceive phoneme-grapheme correspondences音素和字素的关联
in the English spelling system. Learners at this level are trying to master the mechanics of writing. At this stage, form is the primary—if not exclusive—focus, whereas context and meaning are of secondary concern.目标就是掌握技术规范，也就是形式，意义是第二位的。
Beyond the fundamentals of imitative writing are skills in producing appropriate vocabulary within a context, collocations and idioms, and correct grammatical features up to the length of a sentence. 句子层次的恰当的词语、搭配和成语、正确的语法特征。
Meaning and context are of some importance in determining correctness and appropriateness, but most assessment tasks are more concerned with a focus on form and are strictly controlled by the test design.意义在决定正确性和恰当性方面发挥作用，但还是注重形式。
Here, assessment tasks require learners to perform at a limited discourse level, connecting sentences into a paragraph and creating a logically connected sequence of two or three paragraphs.在语篇层次上，将句子联结成段，写出符合逻辑的两到三段。
Tasks relate to pedagogical directives, lists of criteria, outlines, and other guidelines. 写作任务涉及到教学指令、评判标准、提纲和其他引导。
Genres of writing include brief narratives and descriptions, short reports, lab reports, summaries, brief responses to reading, and interpretations of charts or graphs. Under specified conditions, the writer begins to exercise some freedom of choice among alternative forms of expression of ideas. The writer has mastered the fundamentals of sentence-level grammar and is more focused on the discourse conventions that will achieve the objectives of the written text. Form-focused attention is mostly at the discourse level, with a strong emphasis on context and meaning.形式主要关注语篇层次，主要重视语境和意义。
Extensive writing implies successful management of all the processes and strategies of writing for all purposes, up to the length of an essay, a term paper, a major research project report, or even a thesis.在一般作文、学期论文、主要的研究项目报告或论文层面上，可以成功掌控写作过程和策略。
Writers focus on achieving a purpose, organizing and developing ideas logically, using details to support or illustrate ideas, demonstrating syntactic and lexical variety, and, in many cases, engaging in the process of creating multiple drafts to achieve a final product. Focus on grammatical forrn is limited to occasional editing or proof-reading of a draft.